AFM for Process Development and Control
Atomic force microscopy can be a cost effect technique to evaluate samples for process development, and/or to control a process. The AFM measurements used for process control are typically routine and made repetitively. Accuracy and precision can be assured by using standard measurement protocols and qualified probe tips.
What follows are AFMWorkshop examples of measurements routinely made for process development and control.
Top-Left: 40 X 40 micrometer image of processed silicon.
Top-Right: Surface roughness parameters for the processed silicon image.
Bottom: Line profile of silicon image, designated by red line.
Polished and machined surfaces of semiconductors, glass, and metals are readily scanned with the AFM. Traditional profiling methods such as the stylus profiler do not have the vertical resolution required and optical profilers do not have the horizontal resolution. AFM's offer vertical resolution of 0.1 nm and horizontal resolution as small as a nm.
Step Height Measurements
Atomic force microscopes accurately measure the thickness of deposited films as well as the height of features on patterned wafers. Step heights of 1 nm to 100 nm are measurable with an AFM.
Top-Left: AFM image of a section of a patterned wafer.
Top-Right: Dimensions taken from the line profile.
Bottom: Line profile of features on the patterned wafer
Nano-Particle Size Measurements
Atomic force microscopes are ideal for measuring the size of nanoparticle mixtures when nanoparticles are between 1 and 50 nm.
2-20 nm NanoParticles
Line profiles for the 3 nanoparticles identified in the image at left, used to calculate the size of each nanoparticle.
Polymer Phase Measurements
20 micron X 20 micron phase image of 3 component polymer.
The phase signal measured with an AFM is sensitive to variations in composition, adhesion, friction, and viscoelasticity. Thus, this technique is ideal for establishing the number of phases in polymer samples. On the left is a phase image of a polymer sample. Contrast in this sample shows the distributions of the three different polymer phases.
Visualization of Surface Features
Often, it is difficult to establish a numerical parameter that fully characterizes surface features, and it is helpful to visualize the topography of surface structure. Through visualization minor surface blemishes or irregularities can be detected. Below are two images of ruled diffraction gratings. At the left the grating has a pitch of 421.5 nm, and at the right the grating has a pitch of 1673.5nm. Small irregularities at the edges of the apex of the grating lines on the left are readily visualized.
4 µmX 4 µm
16µm X 16 µm