AFM Workshop


The HR-2D is a powerful, affordable and robust AFM designed for imaging low dimensional and 2-D materials. It has a small footprint (7" X 7") and is easily accommodated in a glove box.
Price Range*
$32,999.00 - 
* Prices vary depending on options purchased, importation taxes, installation and training fees.

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HR-2D Details

Video Microscope
Probe Holder
Sample Sizes: Up to 1" X 1" X 1/2"
Standard Scanning Modes: Vibrating (Tapping), Non-Vibrating (Contact), Phase, LFM
Scanners: 100 X 100 X 17 µm, 50 X 50 X17 µm, 15 X 15 X 7 µm
Video Optical Microscope: Top View: 5MP Camera, FOV 1 X 1 mm, Resolution: 2 micron
Stage Size: 7" X 7" X 11"

HR-2D Product Datasheet PDF PDF icon

Key Features and Benefits of the HR-2D

Low Noise Floor With a noise floor of <30 picometers, the HR-2D AFM is capable of measuring samples with features from nano-meters to microns.
Kinematic Tip Approach A stable kinematic design for probe approach is used in the HR-2D AFM. An optional direct drive approach is available.
Top View Video Optical Microscope The top view video microscope feature includes a 5 MP CMOS video camera, a 0.5 " focus adjustment, and a field of view of 1 X 1 mm.
Multiple Scanners Linearized piezoelectric scanners with several ranges are available to optimize scanning conditions.
LabView Software The HR-2D AFM uses industry standard lab view software. For customization, the systems VI's are readily available.
Modular Design Once you buy the HR-2D AFM you can add options and modes such as focus assist, image logger, lithography when you are ready.
Simple Probe Exchange With the removable probe holder, exchanging probes is simple, and takes less than a minute.
Universal Probe Holder Because the HR-2D AFM has a large adjustment range on the laser and photodetector, probes from all major manufacturers can be used.

HR-2D applications

  • Air sensitive materials
  • Low dimensional materials
  • 2-D Materials

Atomic Force Microscopes are ideally suited for creating 3-D images and measurements on 2-D materials. This is because AFMs have extreme contrast on flat samples and can magnify surface heights by factors of millions to billions. Standard reference samples that illustrate the extreme contrast of an AFM are SiC and Si (111). Each of these samples has well characterized surface features that are in the same range as 2-D materials such as graphene.


Three dimensional color scaled image of SiC
Gray scale image of Si atomix steps

Figure 1a: Three dimensional color scaled image of SiC. The steps on this sample are 750 pico-meters.

Figure 1b: Gray scale image of Si (111) atomic steps. The steps on this sample are 300 pico-meters in height.


Besides illustrating the power of an AFM, these types of samples serve as calibration samples for microscopes used for imaging 2-D materials. (Read more...)

The HR-2D stage has excellent thermal and mechanical stability required for high resolution AFM scanning. Additionally, its open design facilitates user modification.

Rigid Kinematic Design: A three point support for the light lever makes the AFM less suceptable to vibrations, enabling ultra high resolution scanning.
Light Lever AFM Force Sensor: Light lever force sensors are used in almost all AFM and permit many types of experiments.
Integrated Probe Holder/Probe Exchanger: A unique probe holder and clipping mechanism allows quick and easy probe exchange.
Z Drive Options: The standard HR-2D AFM uses a single approach motor.
Small Footprint: The stage dimensions of 7" X 7" require little space and fit easily on a tabletop or in a glove box.
Precision XY Stage with Micrometer: The sample is moved relative to the probe with a precision XY micrometer stage. Thus, the sample can be moved without touching it.
Modes Electric Plug: A six pole electrical plug is located at the back of the stage to expand the capabilities of the HR-2D AFM.
XYZ Precision Piezo Scanner: The modified tripod design utilizes temperature compensated strain gauges which assure accurate measurements from images. Also, with this design it is possible to rapidly zoom into a feature visualized in an image.
Laser/Detector Alignment: Both the light lever laser and the photo detector adjustment mechanism may be directly viewed. This feature simplifies the laser/detector alignment.
Adaptable Sample Holder: At the top of the XYZ scanner is a removable cap that holds the sample. The cap can be modified - or a new cap can be designed – to hold many types of samples.


Stage Parts
Light Lever Force Sensor


Electronics in the HR-2D AFM are constructed around industry-standard USB data acquisition electronics. The critical functions, such as XY scanning, are optimized with a 24-bit digital to analog converter. With the analog Z feedback loop, the highest fidelity scanning is possible. Vibrating mode scanning is possible with both phase and amplitude feedback using the high sensitivity phase detection electronics.

28-Bit Scanning: Scanning waveforms for generating motion in the XY axis with the piezo scanners are created with 24-bit DACS and HV amplifiers with 4 bits of gain control, giving 28 bits scanning. Feedback control using the XY strain gauges assures accurate tracking of the probe over the surface.
Phase and Amplitude Detector Circuit: Phase and amplitude in the EBox are measured with highly stable phase and amplitude chips. The system can be configured to feed back on either phase or amplitude when scanning in vibrating mode.
Signal Accessible: At the rear of the EBox is a 50 pin ribbon cable that gives access to all of the primary electronic signals without having to open the EBox.
Status Lights: At the front of the EBox is a light panel that has seven lights. In the unlikely event of a circuit failure, these lights are used to determine the status of the EBox power supplies.
Precision Analog Feedback: Feedback from the light lever force sensor to the Z piezoceramic is made using a precision analog feedback circuit. The position of the probe may be fixed in the vertical direction with a sample-and-hold circuit.
Variable Gain High Voltage Piezo Drivers: An improved signal to noise ratio, as well as extremely small scan ranges are possible with the variable gain high voltage piezo drivers.
HR-2D AFM Ebox diagram

Software for acquiring images is designed with the industry standard LabVIEW™ programming visual interface instrument design environment. There are many standard functions, including setting scanning parameters, probe approach, frequency tuning, and displaying images in real time. LabVIEW™ facilitates rapid development for those users seeking to enhance the software with additional special features. LabVIEW also enables the HR-2D AFM to be readily combined with any other instrument using LabVIEW.


Pre-Scan Tab

All of the functions required before making a scan are on the pre-scan tab. This includes selecting the scan mode, red dot alignment, frequency scan, and automatic tip approach.


Pre-Scan Tab



Scanning Tab

Images are acquired using the scanning tab. Parameters selected on the scanning tab include the scan size, scan rate, GPID parameters, and the color scale used for displaying images. Included with the scanning tab is an image buffer capability that facilitates in-zooming and out-zooming.


Scanning Tab



Modes Tabs

Software control for optional modes such as MFM, EFM, and advanced F/D are found in the modes tabs. The example shown here is of the advanced F/D mode tab. This allows fine control of all the parameters controlling acquisition of force-distance curves, as well as acquisition of F-D curve maps. Mapping of curve sin this way allows the user to locate and visualize regions of the sample with varying properties, such as presence of specific molecules, or mechanical properties.


Modes Tab



Image Analysis Software

Included with the HR-2D AFM is the Gwyddion open source SPM image analysis software. This complete image analysis package has all the software functions necessary to process, analyze, and display SPM images.

Image Analysis Software

  • Visualization: false color representation with different types of mapping
  • Shaded, logarithmic, gradient- and edge-detected, local contrast representation, and Canny lines
  • OpenGL 3D data display: false color or material representation
  • Easily editable color maps and OpenGL materials
  • Basic operations: rotation, flipping, inversion, data arithmetic, crop, and resampling
  • Leveling: plane leveling, profiles leveling, three-point leveling, facet leveling, polynomial background removal, leveling along user-defined lines
  • Value reading, distance, and angle measurement
  • Profiles: profile extraction, measuring distances in profile graph, and profile export
  • Filtering: mean, median, conservative denoise, Kuwahara, minimum, maximum, and checker pattern removal
  • General convolution filter with user-defined kernel
  • Statistical functions: Ra, RMS, projected and surface area, inclination, histograms, 1D and 2D correlation functions, PSDF, 1D and 2D angular distributions, Minkowski functionals, and facet orientation analysis
  • Statistical quantities calculated from area under arbitrary mask
  • Row/column statistical quantities plots
  • ISO roughness parameter evaluation
  • Grains: threshold marking and un-marking, and watershed marking
  • Grain statistics: overall and distributions of size, height, area, volume, boundary length, and bounding dimensions
  • Integral transforms: 2D FFT, 2D continuous wavelet transform (CWT), 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and wavelet anisotropy detection
  • Fractal dimension analysis
  • Data correction: spot remove, outlier marking, scar marking, and several line correction methods (median, modus)
  • Removal of data under arbitrary mask using Laplace or fractal interpolation
  • Automatic XY plane rotation correction
  • Arbitrary polynomial deformation on XY plane
  • 1D and 2D FFT filtering
  • Fast scan axis drift correction
  • Mask editing: adding, removing or intersecting with rectangles and ellipses, inversion, extraction, expansion, and shrinking
  • Simple graph function fitting, critical dimension determination
  • Force-distance curve fitting
  • Axes scale calibration
  • Merging and immersion of images
  • Tip modeling, blind estimation, dilation and erosion

The HR-2D AFM includes a top view video microscope for viewing the sample and probe. The video microscope is essential for locating features on a surface, making a safe and efficient probe approach, and aligning the light lever force sensor.

Top View Video Microscope

For viewing features on a sample's surface, as well as facilitating probe approach, the HR-2D includes a high resolution video camera with a 5 MP CMOS camera. The camera support includes a focus mechanism with a 12 mm range.

TT-AFM Video Optical Microscope shows test structure
TT-AFM Video Microscope on HOPG
Video microscope image of terraces on a sample of HOPG with a low dimensional material deposited on its surface
Video microscope image of a budget sensors test pattern.
The size of the outer box is 1 x 1 mm. The cantilever is 35 u wide and 125 u long.

The HR-2D AFM utilizes a unique probe holder/exchange mechanism. Probes are held in place with a spring device that mates with a probe exchange tool. With the probe exchange tool, changing probes takes only a few minutes.


Quick and Easy AFM Probe Exchange


probe holder insert pmThe probe holder insert is removed from the HR-2D AFM.



probe exchange pmR to L: Box of probes, probe exchange tool, and probe holder insert.



activating AFM probe spring clipActivating the probe spring clip by applying light pressure.



Probe from All Vendors

The HR-2D unvirsal probe holder accomodates probes from all of the major probe manufactures.

Probe Company Logos



1. B AFM images of a DVD disc

23 x 23 micron color scale image of NiI<sub><noscript><img src=

Line profile showing a single layer that is 0.8 nm high

Left: 23 x 23 micron color scale image of NiI2 sample measured in a glove box*

Above: Line profile showing a single layer that is 0.8 nm high

* Q. Song, C.A. Occhialini, E. Ergeçen, B. Ilyas, D. Amoroso, P. Barone, J. Kapeghian, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A.S. Botana, S. Picozzi, N. Gedik & R. Comin (2022). “Evidence for a single-layer van der Waals multiferroic.” Nature 602: 601–605


1. B AFM images of a DVD disc

4 X 4 micron color scale vibrating mode image of epitaxily grown TiSe deposited on HOPG

Line profile (yellow line in image) showing a 1 nm ridge in the TiSe image

Left: 4 X 4 micron color scale vibrating mode image of epitaxily grown TiSe deposited on HOPG.

Above: Line profile (yellow line in image) showing a 1 nm ridge in the TiSe image.


1. B AFM images of a DVD disc

3-D color scale image of a single graphene flake deposited on a Si wafer. The surface texture of the Si is 0.19 nm.

Line profile (black line in image) showing that the flake is 0.6 nm wide and 2.9 nm high

Left: 3-D color scale image of a single graphene flake deposited on a Si wafer. The surface texture of the Si is 0.19 nm.

Above: Line profile (black line in image) showing that the flake is 0.6 nm wide and 2.9 nm high.


1. B AFM images of a DVD disc

Purdue A 4 micron

Purdue D  4 micron(3-D)

4 X 4 micron color scale AFM image measured in vibrating mode of RuCl3. The line in the image is across a single atomic step measuring 0.7 nm.*


4 X 4 micron 3D color scale AFM image measured in vibrating mode of RuCl3. The surface roughness of the substrate is .25 nm. *

* Image courtesy of Purdue University.



Scanning Modes


The HR-2D AFM includes the most commonly used AFM Modes. The are:

Vibrating Mode (tap)Vibrating Mode (tap) Vibrating mode imaging is the most common mode for measuring topography images with an AFM. In vibrating mode the vibration amplitude of the probe is held constant during a scan. Adjustable parameters include the vibrating frequency, amplitude of vibration, and the amount of dampening of the vibrating probe.
Non-vibrating (contact)Non-vibrating (contact) In non-vibrating mode, commonly called contact mode, the deflection of a cantilever is held constant during scanning. This mode is often used for scanning in liquids and is also used for measuring force-distance curves.
PhasePhase Phase mode images are measured in vibrating mode and are useful for identifying different areas of hardness on a surface. The technique operates by measuring the phase change caused by various materials on a surface while scanning.
Lateral ForceLateral Force Lateral force mode measures the local friction a probe senses as it is scanned across a surface. The friction can be caused by surface texture or by different chemical composition.
 Force - Distance (F/D)Force - Distance (F/D) Force Distance Curves measure the deflection of a cantilever as it interacts with a surface. Force-Distance measurements monitor such surface parameters as: Adhesion, Stiffness, Compliance, Hardness, and Contaminate Thickness. This advanced AFM module is flexible and enables many types of experiments.


Optional modes that can be purchased with the HR-2D AFM include:

Magnetic ForceMagnetic Force Measures surface magnetic field by incorporating a magnetic probe into the AFM. MFM is used to generate images of magnetic fields on a surface, and is particularly useful in the development of magnetic recording technology. Magnetic fields associated with individual magnetic nanoparticles are also revealed through MFM.
Electric forceElectric force Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) is a type of dynamic non-contact atomic force Microscope where the electrostatic force is probed. “Dynamic” here means that the cantilever is oscillating and does not make contact with the sample. This force arises due to the attraction or repulsion of separated charges.
Advanced F/DAdvanced F/D Force Distance Curves measure the deflection of a cantilever as it interacts with a surface. Force-Distance measurements monitor such surface parameters as: Adhesion, Stiffness, Compliance, Hardness, and Contaminate Thickness. This advanced AFM module is flexible and enables many types of experiments.
Conductive AFMConductive AFM The C-AFM measures topography and conductivity images simultaneously. This option allows measuring current-voltage (I/V) curves at specific locations on a surface.
LithographyLithography This NanoLithography software option enables the AFM probe to alter the physical or chemical properties of the surface. Created in LabVIEW and integrated with the AFMControl software. VI's are available to customers who want to modify the software and create new capabilities.
Scanning TunnelingScanning Tunneling In the STM, the current flow between a metal probe and a sample are used to control the distance between the conductive probe and conductive surface. When the probe is scanned across the surface, if the current between the probe and surface are held constant with a feedback control loop driving a piezo ceramic, the topography of the sample's surface in measured.


Required Options

When you purchase a HR-2D AFM you must select at least one scanner from the following table:

15 The range of this scanner is 15 microns in X and Y and 7 microns in Z. In a vibration free environment this scanner has a noise floor of <35 picometers. This scanner is recommended for scanning nanostructures
50 This is the most common scanner selected for use with the TT-2 AFM. It has an XY scan range of 50 microns and a Z range of 17 microns. In a vibration free environment this scanner has noise floor of <50 picometers.
100 For scanning large areas this scanner has an XY range of 100 microns and a Z range of 17 microns. In a vibration free environment this scanner has a noise floor of <50 picometers.



XYZ Piezo Scanners 100 microns XY, 17 microns Z
50 microns XY, 17 microns Z
15 microns, 7 microns Z
Dunk and Scan Probe Holder Open liquid cell for scanning samples submerged in liquids. Can directly replace the HR-2D AFM probe holder.
Conductive AFM Measures the 2D conductivity maps of sample surfaces.
Magnetic Force Microscopy Measures the surface magnetic field of a sample by incorporating a magnetic probe into the AFM.
Lithography Uses an AFM probe to alter the physical or chemical property of a sample surface.
Advanced Force Distance Curves Measures the deflection of a cantilever as it interacts with a surface. Monitors parameters such as: Adhesion, Stiffness, Compliance, Hardness, and Contaminate Thickness. Advanced SPIP analysis software.
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy The current flow between the probe and sample is used to control the feedback loop in the microscope when scanning electrically conductive samples.
Electric Force Microscopy Using two pass scanning, the electric charge at a surface is imaged.
Breakout Box BNC gives access to most of the signals in the Ebox.
Image Logger This option allows display of six channels in the forward and reverse direction. It has a spectrum function as well as a twelve channel data logger.
Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKPM) SKPM measures the potential difference between a conductive probe and a conductive sample.



HR-2D AFM Specifications

Scanner Specifications

100 X 100 X 17 50 X 50 X 17 15 X 15 X 7
Engineering Specifications
XY Resolution 0.010 nm 0.005 nm 0.003 nm
XY Linearity <0.1% <0.1% <0.1%
Z Resolution 0.003 nm 0.003 nm 0.0015 nm
Z Linearity <0.1% <0.1% <0.1%
Performance Specializations
XY Range 100 µm 50 µm 15 µm
XY Linearity <1% <1% <1%
XY Resolution
Closed Loop <6 nm <3 nm <1 nm
Open Loop <1 nm <1 nm <0.3 nm
Z Range 17 µm 17 µm 7 µm
Z Linearity
Open Loop <5% <5% <5%
Closed Loop <1% <1% <1%
Z Sensor Noise 1 nm 1 nm N.A.
Z Feedback Noise <.035 nm <.035 nm <.025 nm
Actuator Type Piezo Piezo Piezo
Design Modified Tripod Modified Tripod Modified Tripod
XY Sensor Type Strain Gauge Strain Gauge Strain Gauge
Z Sensor Type Strain Gauge Strain Gauge N.A.

Electronic Control Specifications

XY Scan 2 X 28-bits 24-bit Scan DAC, 4-bit gain 192 Khz
XY Linearization Control 2 X 24 bits 24 bit ADC 192 Khz
Z Axis Control Analog 4 amplifier – GPID 1 microvolt noise
Input Signal Bandwith 5 Mhz
Z axis Signal Capture 20 bits 16-bit ADC, 4-bit gain 50 Khz
Phase Signal Capture 2 X 16bits ADC 50 Khz
L-R Signal Capture 2 X 16 bits ADC 50 Khz
Amplitude Signal Capture 2 X 16 bits ADC 50 Khz
Z Error Signal Caputre 2 X 16 bits ADC 50 Khz
Main Controller MPU 80 Mz/105 DMIPS, 32 Bits (5-stage pipeline, Harvard architecture)
Excitation/Modulation Analog PLL 0-800 Khz
Communication USB 2.0
Signal capture specified includes the image logger option. Without Image Logger 1 X 16 bits

Optional Electronics Specifications

User Input Signal (1) 32 X 18 bits ADC 625 Khz
User Output (1) 32 X 18 bits DAC 625 Khz
User Monitor(1) 48 Lines Digital IO Mhz
Optional Controller MPU (2) 80 Mz/105 DMIPS, 32 Bits (5-stage pipeline, Harvard architecture)

(1)Optional User I/O upgrade
(2)Used for MFM, PhotoCorrect, EFM


Environment LabVIEW
Operating System Windows
Image Acquisition Real Time Display
(2 of 8 channels)
Control Parameters  
Setpoint Yes
Range Yes
Scan Rate Yes
Image Rotate 0 and 90 degrees
Laser Align Yes
Vibrating Freq. Display Yes
Force Distance Yes
Tip Approach Yes
Oscilloscope Yes
Image Store Format Industry Standard
Image Pixels 16 X 16 to 1024 X 1024
H.V. Gain Control XY and Z
Real Time Display Line Level, Light Shaded,
Grey Color Pallet
Calibration System Window
Probe Center Yes

Stage Specifications

Sample Holder Magnetic
Sample Size 1" X 1" X 1/2"
Sample Translator
XY Range 1/2" X 1/2"
Resolution 1 micron
Actuator Micrometer
Z Translation
Stepper Motor
Minimum Step Size 150 nm
Maximum Range 0.75"

Physical Specifications

Weight 10 lbs.
Dimensions 7" X 7" X 11"
Weight 5 lbs.
Dimensions 6" X 14" X 10"
Power <250 W
Voltage 110 V/220V

Video Optical Microscope Specifications

Minimum Zoom
2 microns
Field of View
1 mm X 1 mm
400 X
Digital Zoom
16 levels

* Measured on a 23" monitor.


Top View Optic:

  • Research Grade
  • 5 Megapixel CMOS Camera
  • 60 mm working distance
  • On-axis LED light
  • XY range - Micrometer 1/2"
  • Focus range - Micrometer 1/2"


* Z Noise performance depends greatly on the environment the HR-2D AFM is used in. Best Z noise performance is obtained in a vibration-free environment.

** Every effort is made to present accurate specifications, however, due to circumstances beyond AFMWorkshop's control specifications are subject to change. All specifications are accurate to +/-5%.

Our Guarantee

AFMWorkshop provides a 100% money back guarantee. If our AFM's can't run your application, we will refund the full price*.

* see terms

Our Warranty

AFMWorkshop stands behind its products. We offer a two year return to factory warranty with every AFM we offer.



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