- Video Microscope
- Probe Holder
|Sample Sizes:||Up to 1" X 1" X 3/4"|
|Standard Scanning Modes:||Vibrating(Tapping), Non Vibrating (Contact), Phase, LFM|
|Scanners:||50 x 50 x 17 µm, 15 x 15 x 7 µm|
|Video Optical Microscope:||Zoom to 400X, 2 µm resolution|
|Stage and Ebox Size:||Compact table top design|
|Download:||TT-2 AFM Product Datasheet PDF|
TT-2 AFM Overview
With a Z noise floor of 0.08 nm, the TT-2 AFM is capable of high resolution scanning
Samples such as DNA, nanoparticles and nanotubes are measured with the TT-2 AFM.
This compact, second generation tabletop Atomic Force Microscope has all the important features and benefits expected from a light lever AFM and includes everything required for high-resolution scanning in one low price. The TT-2 AFM is:
For Nanotechnology Researchers
Wanting to do routine scanning of nano-structures...Read More
AFMs are essential for process development and control applications in advanced technology industries... Read More
For Instrument Innovators
Using AFM as a platform to create a new instrument...Read More
Teaching students about AFM construction, operation, and applications...Read More
Example Application of the TT-2 AFM: Analysis of Si Atomic Terrace Sample
The vertical resolution of the TT-2 AFM can be demonstrated with an Si test sample that is a misorientation surface from the Siplane ~ 1(deg). The test sample includes two step sizes; the largest terrace of 50 nm can be visualized with the TT-2 AFM video microscope. The sample also includes single atomic steps of .314 nm. Several TT-2 AFM advantages and features are demonstrated by the analysis of the Si sample.
Video microscope image of the cantilever and Si atomic terrace sample. The lines visualized in the video microscope image are the 50 nm terraces on the sample surface. With the AFM, the smaller atomic steps are found on the terraces.
This 4x4 um image of Si silicon shows a Z scale of 1.8 nm. Each of the grey color scales represents a single atomic step of 0.314 nm.
The blue square shows the area in which the surface texture was measured.
A red circle designates a defect. The line profile for the circled defect is illustrated below.
This histogram analysis shows the height of each of the terraces on the sample. A step height of 0.303 nm is measured.
Surface texture parameters for the image are calculated for the region designated with the blue box. The expected value for the surface roughness (Ra) for this sample is 0.06 nm.
A line profile of the defect designated by the red circle in the image is 0.471 nm in height. This defect was visualized in repetitive images of the same surface area.
Additional Applications with the TT-2 AFM
The TT-2 AFM meets a wide variety of applications. More details on the use of the TT-2 AFM for industry, research and education can be found by clicking on any of the links below:
Life Sciences Applications
Process Development and Process Control Applications
TT-2 AFM Videos
An open design is at the core of all products offered by the AFM Workshop. New types of experiments are more readily designed and implemented through the use of LabVIEW software. All the mechanical drawings for the TT-2 AFM are available in the documentation package option. Finally, AFMWorkshop's Customer Forum allows the company to share specialized designs developed for the TT-2 AFM directly with all customers. For specialized applications, other types of scanners such as flexure and tubes can be easily added to the microscope stage.
More Details about the TT-2 AFM
To read more about the TT-2 AFM, return to the top of the page and click on the various tabs detailing the TT-2 AFM components, or click on the following links:
TT-2 AFM Stage
The TT-2 AFM stage has excellent thermal and mechanical stability required for high resolution AFM scanning. Additionally, its open design facilitates user modification.
Rigid Frame Design
The crossed beam design for the stage support is extremely rigid so the AFM is less susceptible to external vibrations.
Light Lever AFM Force Sensor
Light lever force sensors are used in almost all atomic force microscopes and permit many types of experiments.
Integrated Probe Holder/Probe Exchanger
A unique probe holder and clipping mechanism allows quick and easy probe exchange.
Direct Drive Z stage
A linear motion stage is used to move the probe in a perpendicular motion to the sample. Probe/sample angle alignment is not required, facilitating a much faster probe approach.
The stage dimensions of 4" X 7"" require little space and fit easily on a tabletop.
Precision XY Stage with Micrometer
The sample is moved relative to the probe with a precision xy micrometer stage. Thus, the sample can be moved without touching it.
Modes Electric Plug
A six pole electrical plug is located at the back of the stage to expand the capabilities of the TT-2 AFM.
XYZ Precision Piezo Scanner
The modified tripod design utilizes temperature compensated strain gauges which assure accurate measurements from images. Also, with this design it is possible to rapidly zoom into a feature visualized in an image.
Both the light lever laser and the photo detector adjustment mechanism may be directly viewed. This feature simplifies the laser/detector alignment.
Adaptable Sample Holder
At the top of the XYZ scanner is a removable cap that holds the sample. The cap can be modified - or a new cap can be designed – to hold many types of samples.
TT-2 AFM EBOX
Electronics in the TT-2 AFM are constructed around industry-standard USB data acquisition electronics. The critical functions, such as xy scanning, are optimized with a 24 bit digital to analog converter. With the analog z feedback loop, the highest fidelity scanning is possible. Vibrating mode scanning is possible with both phase and amplitude feedback using the high sensitivity phase detection electronics.
24 bit scan DAC
Scanning waveforms for generating precision motion in the X-Y axis with the piezo scanners are created with 24 bit DACS driven by a 32 bit micro controller. With 24 bit scanning, the highest resolution AFM images may be measured. Feedback control using the xy strain gauges assures accurate tracking of the probe over the surface.
Phase and Amplitude Detector Circuit
Phase and amplitude in the Ebox are measured with highly stable phase and amplitude chips. The system can be configured to feed back on either phase or amplitude when scanning in vibrating mode.
At the rear of the eBox is a 50 pin ribbon cable that gives access to all of the primary electronic signals without having to open the eBox.
At the front of the Ebox is a light panel that has 7 lights. In the unlikely event of a circuit failure, these lights are used for determining the status of the Ebox power supplies.
Precision Analog Feedback
Feedback from the light lever force sensor to the Z piezoceramic is made using a precision analog feedback circuit. The position of the probe may be fixed in the vertical direction with a sample-and-hold circuit.
Variable Gain High Voltage Piezo Drivers
An improved signal to noise ratio, as well as extremely small scan ranges are possible with the variable gain high voltage piezo drivers.
TT-2 AFM Software
Software for acquiring images is designed with the industry standard LabVIEW™ programming visual interface instrument design environment. There are many standard functions, including setting scanning parameters, probe approach, frequency tuning, and displaying images in real time. LabVIEW™ facilitates rapid development for those users seeking to enhance the software with additional special features. LabVIEW also enables the TT-2 AFM to be readily combined with any other instrument using LabVIEW.
A pre-scan window includes all of the functions that are required before a scan is started. The functions are presented in a logical sequence on the screen.
Once all of the steps in the pre-scan window are completed, the scan window is used for measuring images. Scan parameter, Z feedback parameters, and image view functions may be changed with dialogs on this screen.
Industry standard programming environment. Readily customized and modified for specialized applications. Instrumentation already using LabVIEW can be added to the TT-2 AFM to create new capabilities.
Image Analysis Software
Included with the TT-2 AFM is the Gwyddion open source SPM image analysis software. This complete image analysis package has all the software functions necessary to process, analyze and display SPM images.
- visualization: false color representation with different types of mapping
- shaded, logarithmic, gradient- and edge-detected, local contrast representation, Canny lines
- openGL 3D data display: false color or material representation
- easily editable color maps and OpenGL materials
- basic operations: rotation, flipping, inversion, data arithmetic, crop, resampling
- leveling: plane leveling, profiles leveling, three-point leveling, facet leveling, polynomial background removal, leveling along user-defined lines
- value reading, distance and angle measurement
- profiles: profile extraction, measuring distances in profile graph, profile export
- filtering: mean, median, conservative denoise, Kuwahara, minimum, maximum, checker pattern removal
- general convolution filter with user-defined kernel
- statistical functions: Ra, RMS, projected and surface area, inclination, histograms, 1D and 2D correlation functions, PSDF, 1D and 2D angular distributions, Minkowski functionals, facet orientation analysis
- statistical quantities calculated from area under arbitrary mask
- row/column statistical quantities plots
- ISO roughness parameter evaluation
- grains: threshold marking and un-marking, watershed marking
- grain statistics: overall and distributions of size, height, area, volume, boundary length, bounding dimensions
- integral transforms: 2D FFT, 2D continuous wavelet transform (CWT), 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet anisotropy detection
- fractal dimension analysis
- data correction: spot remove, outlier marking, scar marking, several line correction methods (median, modus)
- removal of data under arbitrary mask using Laplace or fractal interpolation
- automatic xy plane rotation correction
- arbitrary polynomial deformation on xy plane
- 1D and 2D FFT filtering
- fast scan axis drift correction
- mask editing: adding, removing or intersecting with rectangles and ellipses, inversion, extraction, expansion, shrinking
- simple graph function fitting, critical dimension determination
- force-distance curve fitting
- axes scale calibration
- merging and immersion of images
- tip modeling, blind estimation, dilation and erosion
TT-2 AFM Video Microscope
A video optical microscope in an AFM serves three functions: aligning the laser onto the cantilever in the light lever AFM, locating surface features for scanning, and facilitating probe approach. The TT-2 AFM includes a high performance video optical microscope along with a 3 mega pixel camera, light source, microscope stand, and Windows software for displaying images.
Laser alignment is greatly facilitated with the video optical microscope. This non-vibrating cantilever is 250 µm long. The red spot is from the laser reflecting off the cantilever.
TT-2 AFM Probe Holder / Exchange Tool
The TT-2 AFM utilizes a unique probe holder/exchange mechanism. Probes are held in place with a spring device that mates with a probe exchange tool. With the probe exchange tool, changing probes takes only a few minutes.
Quick and Easy AFM Probe Exchange
AFM Workshop Image Gallery
DNA; 1 µm x 1 µm AFM image
DNA; 1.5 µm x 1.5 µm
DNA; 1.5 µm x 1.5 µm AFM
Marks made with AFM Lithography; 20 µm x 20 µm
Nanolithography, Changing Probe Force. 25 µm x 25 µm image of lines made in PMMA surface. Each line is 1 µm apart; each has differing probe force.
1 nm and 3 nm particles test sample. 500 nm x 500 nm AFM image
1 nm and 3 nm particles, test sample. 100 nm x 100 nm
Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG), 4 µm x 4 µm
Ruled Grating Irregularities, 3-D image, 4 µm x 4 µm
Ruled Grating Irregularities, 4 µm x 4 µm ruled diffraction grating, irregularities at edges of the apex on grating lines.
Multiphase Polymer Film - 3D shape from topography with phase signal overlaid as color
AFM image of defects on 0.3 nm Si Terraces, 4 µm x 4 µm
Latex spheres; 3 µm x 3 µm image of 173 nm latex spheres
Latex spheres; 3 µm x 3 µm; 173 nm latex spheres AFM Image
Aluminum foil, 3D AFM image; 50 µm x 50 µm.
SiC Terraces; 6 µm x 6 µm, AFM image
Aluminum foil, dull side, 3D image; 50 µm x 50 µm.
Self-assembled lipid nanotubes; 20 µm x 20 µm, AFM image.
Self-assembled lipid nanotubes, 5 µm x 5 µm
Red blood cells, 30 µm x 30 µm 2D red color scale
Red blood cells 3D AFM image
Polymer used in common glue, 10 µm x 10 µm images, 2-D light shaded view
MFM image of magnetic disk; 40 µm x 40 µm
Polymer used in common glue 10 µm x 10 µm image, 3-D color scale view
20 µm X 20 µm AFM image of SHS 100 nm test pattern, color view
Inverted Optical microscope image of Caco-2 cells; box indicates area selected for AFM scanning
AFM image of Caco-2 cells; 48 µm x 48 µm. AFM scan of area selected by box in previous inverted optical microscope photo
Inverted optical image of neutraphil a1 cells, inverted optical microscope view, AFM probe is shadow
Neutrophil & erythrocyte cells; 50 µm light shaded
Caco-2 cells. Left: Epiflourescence image of Caco-2 cells treated with quantum dots. Right: 50 µm x 50 µm AFM image of Caco-2 cells
Tip checker sample, 2-D color scale 20 µm x 20 µm image
Tip checker sample, 3-D color scale view; 20 µm x 20 µm.
Silicon test pattern 40 µm x 40 µm grey scale image
Holes in polymer film, 10 µm x 10 µm AFM Image
Silicon test pattern, 7 µm x 7 µm zoomed in image of particle viewed in the upper center of the left image.
Patterns on ferroelectric material 50 µm x 50 µm light shaded image.
Multiphase polymer height image; 10 µm x 10 µm
Multiphase polymer 10 µm x 10 µm, phase image.
Light shaded image of cell, 7 µm x 7 µm AFM Image
Vibrating mode image showing three different species of bacteria
Amplitude Image of Leishmania parasites 25 µm x 25 µm
Scratch mark in a metal surface, 10 µm x 10 µm color scale image
Bacteria spore mutants 30 µm x 30 µm AFM image
Waffle test pattern, 2100 lines per mm, 8 µm x 8 µm color scale image
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), 2 µm x 2 µm color scale image
Tobacco Mosaic Virus, 1.2 µm x 1.2 µm color scale image of 17 nm diameter single TMV
Conductive AFM scan, standard reference sample, 10 µm x 10 µm conductivity image
Atomic terraces on metal surface, 5 µm x 5 µm AFM image
0.3 nm terraces on Si, 5 µm x 5 µm color scale image
Gold nanoparticles, 2D color scale 2 µm x 2 µm image of 14 nm diameter particles
Gold nanoparticles, 3-D color scale 2 µm x 2 µm image of 14 nm diameter particles
Phase mode image of PMMA 300nm x 300nm AFM image
DVD: 6 µm x 6 µm AFM image
STEPP sample: 3 µm x 3 µm, small scan zoom of microterraces observed on the previous 16 µm x 16 µm image
STEPP scan: 3 µm x 3 µm, smaller scale zoom to view microterraces seen on previous 16 µm x 16 µm scan
Epithelial Cell 35 µm x 35 µm, 3D AFM image
Epithelial cell in liquid, 32 µm x 32 µm AFM image
STEPP: 16 µm x 16 µm, showing microterraces on terrace, see features in smaller scans
Cardiomyocytes; inverted optical miroscope image showing location of AFM probe from below
Cardiomyocytes from the LS-AFM inverted optical microsope
Polystyrene Nanoparticles: Binodal distribution of nanoparticles, 20 nm and 100 nm
BOPP Polymer; 2 µm x 2 µm biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film.
Single E. coli bacterial cell, displaying fimbriae & polar flagellum
Gold Nanoparticles, 100 nm
Gold Nanoparticles, 20 nm AFM Image
Donut shaped nanoparticles, 2.5 µm x 2.5 µm.
Structures on patterned wafer after CMP; 50 µm x 50 µm
Polished surface, 3D AFM image; 30 µm x 30 µm
Three component polymer, AFM phase image; 5µm x 5µm
Oriented polypropylene showing network of fibers; 10 µm x 10 µm.
Thermoplastics and rubbers blend. AFM phase image shows differentiation of components in sample; 5 µm x 5 µm.
SEBS polymer (styrene/ethylene/butylene polymer); AFM phase image, 1 µm x 1 µm.
SEBS polymer (styrene/ethylene/butylene polymer); AFM topography image, 1 µm x 1 µm.
SEBS polymer, phase image. 500 nm x 500 nm, smallest domains ~10 nm easily visible
Quantum dots, 3D AFM image, 1.5µm x 1.5 µm
Polymer, AFM phase image; 19 µm x 19 µm.
Polymer, AFM topography image; 19 µm x 19 µm.
Calibration reference - 40 µm x 40 µm x 1 µm
Silicon wafer, AFM scan; 10 µm x 10 µm.
Silicon wafer, 3D AFM scan; 10 µm x 10 µm.
Patterned wafer polished by CMP 10 µm x 10 µm on left; square shows area selected for AFM scanning at .5 µm x .5 µm. AFM scan reveals pockmarks on surface.
Patterned wafer polished by CMP, 3-D color scale. Analysis revealed surface roughness (Sa) of 1.69 nm
Nanoparticles, 3D projection 3 µm x 3 µm image w/nanoparticles from 4 nm to 12 nm in diameter
Graphene sample, AFM image 11 µm x 11 µm
MEMS Multiple Level Gear, Courtesy TX Tech, Sandia Ntl. Labs
MEMS High Performance Comb-Drive Actuator. Courtesy TX Tech, Sandia Ntl. Labs
TT-2 AFM Modes
Standard with every TT-2 AFM are non-vibrating (NV) mode and vibrating (V) modes for making topography scans. Additional modes included with the product are lateral force imaging as well as phase mode imaging. All of the scanning modes that can be implemented with a light lever AFM are also possible with the TT-2 AFM.
With the window below, the resonance frequency of a cantilever is readily measured. Additionally, the phase characteristics of the probe-sample interaction are captured.
TT-2 AFM Options
Attendees build and learn to operate their TT-2 AFM, along with receiving training on the theory, operation and applications of an atomic force microscope.
Allows a range of 15 X 15 microns in XY and 7 microns in Z.
Reduces unwanted acoustic and structural vibrations.
Open liquid cell for scanning samples submerged in liquids. Can directly replae the TT-2 AFM probe holder of the NP/SA/ or LS-AFM probe holder
Permits scanning in inert environments or liquids.
All-inclusive curriculum introduces undergraduate students to atomic force microscopy. Includes Student Manual, Teacher Manual, four samples, and eight probes.
Measures the 2-D conductivity of sample surfaces.
Measures the surface magnetic field of a sample by incorporating a magnetic probe into the AFM.
Uses an AFM probe to alter the physical or chemical property of a sample surface.
Measures the deflection of a cantilever as it interacts with a surface. Monitors parameters such as: Adhesion, Stiffness, Compliance, Hardness, and Contaminate Thickness.
AFMWorkshop regularly develops new Options. Contact AFMWorkshop for more information on options for the TT-2 AFM.
TT-2 AFM ADVANCED CONFIGURATION
The TT-2 AFM Advanced Configuration provides all of the advanced features required for demanding projects.
Included with the package is
50 Micron and 15 Micron scanner
Advanced Force Distance
Documentation Package with all schematics, mechanical drasings, and software protocols
Break out box
The benefit of purchasing this package includes a substantial package discounted price, as well as ensuring that you are ready for any demanding project as soon as your AFM is delivered to your lab.
TT-2 AFM Specifications
50 Micron XYZ Scanner
15 Micron XYZ Scanner
Light Lever AFM Force Sensor
Field of view
2 x 2 mm
300 x 300 µm
Digital Data Input Output
* Z Noise performance depends greatly on the environment the TT-2 AFM is used in. Best Z noise performance is obtained in a vibration free environment.
** Every effort is made to present accurate specifications, however, due to circumstances beyond AFMWorkshop's control specifications are subject to change. All specifications are accurate to +/-5%.